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Mechanical properties

Test Standard
Abrasion ResistanceASTM D4060
Abrasion ResistanceBS 3900-E14, ISO 7784-1
Abrasion ResistanceBS 3900-E15, ISO 7784-2
Adhesion TestingBS EN 24624, ISO 4624
Adhesion TestingBS EN ISO 2409, BS 3900-E6
Application Properties and Appearance
Assessment of BlisteringBS 3900-H2, ISO 4628/2
Assessment of ChalkingBS 3900-H6, ISO 4628/6
Assessment of CrackingBS 3900-H4, ISO 4628/4
Assessment of FlakingBS 3900-H5, ISO 4628/5
Assessment of RustingBS 3900-H3, ISO 4628/3
Chip ResistanceBS AU 148 Part 15
Cupping ResistanceBS EN ISO 1520, BS 3900-E4
Determination of Film ThicknessBS EN ISO 2808, BS 3900-C5
Determination of Recoatability
Determination of Surface Drying TimeBS 3900-C2, ISO 1517
Determination of Through Drying TimeBS 3900-C3, ISO 9117, BS EN 29117
Flexibility TestingASTM D 522
Flexibility TestingBS EN ISO 1519, BS 3900-E1
Flexibility TestingBS EN ISO 6860, BS 3900-E11
Hardness TestingASTM D 3363
Hardness TestingBS 3900-E17, ISO 12137- 1
Hardness TestingBS 3900-E19, ISO 15184
Hardness TestingBS EN ISO 1518, BS 3900-E2
Hardness TestingBS EN ISO 1522, BS 3900-E5
Hardness TestingBS EN ISO 2815, BS 3900-E9

Abrasion Resistance: ASTM D4060

Scope and Field Application

ASTM D4060 is similar to BS 3900-E15/ ISO 7784-2 and the differences between the methods is summarised below.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standards. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

At least two test panels 100 x 100 x not more than 5 mm

6.3 mm diameter circular central hole.

perfectly flat with a non-textured test surface

weight less than 200 grams

We can cut larger panels to size for you or, if you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we needs depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

 

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Abrasion Resistance: BS 3900-E14, ISO 7784-1

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-E14 and ISO 7784-1 are alternative names for the same method which is intended for determining the resistance to abrasion of a dry film of paint, varnish or related product using abrasive paper attached to a rotating wheel.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standards. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

Three test panels 100 x 100 x not more than 5 mm

6.3 mm diameter circular central hole.

Perfectly flat with a non-textured test surface

Weight less than 200 grams

We can cut larger panels to size for you or, if you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we needs depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

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Abrasion Resistance: BS 3900-E15, ISO 7784-2

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-E15 and ISO 7784-2 are alternative names for the same method which is intended for determining the resistance to abrasion of a dry film of paint, varnish or related product using rotating abrasive rubber wheel.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standards. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

Three test panels 100 x 100 x not more than 5 mm

6.3 mm diameter circular central hole.

Perfectly flat with a non-textured test surface

Weight less than 200 grams

We can cut larger panels to size for you or, if you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we needs depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

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Adhesion Testing: BS EN 24624, ISO 4624

Scope and Field Application

BS EN 24624 and ISO 4624 and are alternative names for the same method which is used to assess coating adhesion by measuring the magnitude of a perpendicularly applied tensile force needed to detach or rupture the coating. It supersedes BS 3900: E10 which has been withdrawn.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standards. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

We need at least three flat panels for each coating. They should be 150 x 100 x at least 3 mm. Steel or aluminium are the preferred substrates although we have used this test on coatings applied to rigid plastics. Unless the adhesion of the coating is poor, substrate like wood and masonry are liable to undergo cohesive failure first.

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we needs depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements

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Adhesion Testing: BS EN ISO 2409, BS 3900-E6

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 2409 and BS 3900-E6 are alternative names for the same method which is used to assess the resistance of a dry film of paint, varnish or related product to separation from a substrate when a right-angle lattice pattern is cut into the coating and penetrates through to the substrate.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standards. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

The test can be carried out using a single 150 x 100 mm coated test panel. We can normally carry out the test on coated objects provided they have at least three flat regions at least 40 x 40 mm. The coating must be non textured and less than 250 microns thick.

 

 

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Application Properties and Appearance:

Scope and Field Application

This is a test designed to measure how easy it is to apply coatings to a substrate using a brush and / or a roller. After application, the appearance and hiding power of the film assessed and the coverage calculated.

Sample Requirements

We require 1 litre of coating.

 

 

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Assessment of Blistering: BS 3900-H2, ISO 4628/2

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-H2 and ISO 4628/2 are alternative names for the same method. It is one of a series of methods of designating the quantity and size of common types of defects in paint coatings. Other methods in this series deal with the assessment of chalking, cracking, flaking and rusting.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

This assessment is normally carried out using test panels that have been subject to some form of corrosion or durability testing and the panel size and number will have been selected for that purpose. Basically all we need is a representative test piece with an area for assessment of at least 100 x 100 mm.

 

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Assessment of Chalking: BS 3900-H6, ISO 4628/6

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-H6 and ISO 4628/6 are alternative names for the same method. It is one of a series of methods of designating the quantity and size of common types of defects in paint coatings. Other methods in this series deal with the assessment of blistering, cracking, flaking and rusting.

Chalking is defined as the formation of a powdery deposit on the surface of a coating that has been exposed to some form of degradation. It is commonly found on coatings that have been exposed outdoors to sun and rain. The powder is in fact the pigment and extender that remains after the binder has been destroyed by weathering.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

This assessment is normally carried out using test panels that have been subject to some form of durability testing and the panel size and number will have been selected for that purpose. Basically all we need is a representative test piece with an area for assessment of at least 100 x 100 mm.

 

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Assessment of Cracking: BS 3900-H4, ISO 4628/4

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-H4 and ISO 4628/4 are alternative names for the same method. It is one of a series of methods of designating the quantity and size of common types of defects in paint coatings. Other methods in this series deal with the assessment of blistering, chalking, flaking and rusting.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

This assessment is normally carried out using test panels that have been subject to some form of durability testing and the panel size and number will have been selected for that purpose. Basically all we need is a representative test piece with an area for assessment of at least 100 x 100 mm.

 

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Assessment of Flaking: BS 3900-H5, ISO 4628/5

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-H5 and ISO 4628/5 are alternative names for the same method. It is one of a series of methods of designating the quantity and size of common types defects in paint coatings. Other methods in this series deal with the assessment of blistering, chalking, cracking and rusting.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

This assessment is normally carried out using test panels that have been subject to some form of durability testing and the panel size and number will have been selected for that purpose. Basically all we need is a representative test piecewith an area for assessment of at least 100 x 100 mm.

 

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Assessment of Rusting: BS 3900-H3, ISO 4628/3

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-H3 and ISO 4628/3 are alternative names for the same method. It is one of a series of methods of designating the quantity and size of common types defects in paint coatings. Other methods in this series deal with the assessment of blistering, chalking, cracking and flaking.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

This assessment is normally carried out using test panels that have been subject to some form of corrosion testing and the panel size and number will have been selected for that purpose. Basically all we need is a representative test piece with an area for assessment of at least 100 x 100 mm.

 

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Chip Resistance: BS AU 148 Part 15

Scope and Field Application

BS AU 148: Part 15 is a method of providing information regarding the resistance of a paint system to chipping by the impact of gravel and grit thrown up from road surfaces. We use it to test automotive finishes.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

We require 3 coated panels (150 x 100 mm) on an appropriate substrate.

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we needs depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

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Cupping Resistance: BS EN ISO 1520, BS 3900-E4

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 1520 and BS 3900-E4 are alternative names for the same method which is used to assess the resistance of a dry film of paint, varnish or related product to cracking and/or detachment from a metal substrate when subjected to gradual deformation by indentation under standard conditions. It is a particularly appropriate method for testing pre-coated metal which will be bent or extruded in some factory production process.

When choosing a test method, you may also wish to consider the mandrel bend tests (BS EN ISO 1519, BS EN ISO 6860 and ASTM D 522). Cupping is potentially a more severe test than the mandrel bend test. In the cupping test, deformation of the panel can be taken to the point where the metal fractures. This does not normally happen during mandrel tests.

The cupping and mandrel tests are all carried out on coatings applied to flexible metallic substrates. If you are interested in the flexibility or other tensile properties of coatings on different substrates, you may wish to consider tensile testing.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we needs depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

However if you wish to supply us with coated panels it is important that the thickness and composition of the substrate is such that it can be deformed and the substrate itself does not crack under test.

In practice this means that the steel or aluminium panels must be not less than 0.3 mm and not more than 1.25 mm thick. We require three panels for each coating each of which should be 100 x 150 mm.

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Determination of Film Thickness: BS EN ISO 2808, BS 3900-C5

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 2808 and BS 3900-C5 are alternative names for a number of methods that are applicable to the measurement of the thickness of both wet and dry organic coatings. None of the methods are suitable for measuring metallic coatings but some can be adapted for the measurement of detached organic films. The standard also defines a number of terms concerning the determination of film thickness.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

Detached paint flakes should be at least as large as your thumb nail and should include all layers from the one adjacent to the substrate up to the top coat. Our requirements when dealing with coated substrates vary depending on the method to be used and we will be pleased to discuss this with you.

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Determination of Recoatability:

Scope and Field Application

Often customers want to know if a coating can be over coated once it is through dry we assess this by using a our method for recoatability, frequently this test is carried out in combination with the determination of through drying time.

This work is not carried out to any international standard: we use our own in-house method.

 

Sample Requirements

We require 250 ml of sample together with information regarding the film thickness at which the coating should be applied.

 

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Determination of Surface Drying Time: BS 3900-C2, ISO 1517

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-C2 and ISO 1517 are alternative names for the same method which is intended for the determination of the surface drying characteristics of a paint or varnish film which dries by reaction with air or by a chemical reaction of its components.

This method gives a measure of the time that elapses between the application of a coating and that moment when the surface first becomes sufficiently dry that material no longer adheres to it.

At this time the sub-surface coating will still be soft and a separate test is required to determine how long it takes for the coating to dry completely. Please see below for details of the 'through drying' method.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

We require 250 ml of sample together with information regarding the film thickness at which the coating should be applied.

 

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Determination of Through Drying Time: BS 3900-C3, ISO 9117, BS EN 29117

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-C3 , ISO 9117 and BS EN 29117 are alternative names for the same method which is intended for the determination of the through drying characteristics of a paint or varnish film which dries by reaction with air or by a chemical reaction of its components.

This method gives a measure of the time that elapses between the application of a coating and that moment when not only the surface but the entire thickness of the film is dry. We normally supplement this method with an in-house determination of recoatability.

A separate test is required to determine how long it takes for the surface alone to dry completely. Please see above for details of the 'surface drying' method.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

We require 250 ml of sample together with information regarding the film thickness at which the coating should be applied.

 

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Flexibility Testing: ASTM D 522

Scope and Field Application

ASTM D 522 is a method of determining the resistance to cracking of organic coatings on sheet metal or rubber-type substrates.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standards. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

In order to carry out the conical mandrel test, we need 3 coated panels for each coating. The dimensions for crack testing should be 150 x 100 mm. The substrate may be any sheet metal up to 0.8 mm thick or any rubber-type material up to 13 mm thick. If elongation testing is requires the substrate must be cold-rolled steel 150 x 100 x less than 0.8 mm.

The requirements for testing using the cylindrical mandrel are the same as the conical mandrel in terms of dimensions. If we are to determine the largest mandrel that causes failure, we need 15 panels for each coating. If you specify the mandrel diameter, we need 2 panels.

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we needs depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

 

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Flexibility Testing: BS EN ISO 1519, BS 3900-E1

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 1519 and BS 3900-E1 are alternative names for the same method which is used to assess the resistance of a dry film of paint, varnish or related product to cracking and/or detachment from a flexible substrate when bent around a cylindrical mandrel.

When choosing a flexibility test method, you may also wish to consider the cupping test. Cupping is potentially a more severe test than the mandrel bend test. In the cupping test, deformation of the panel can be taken to the point where the metal fractures. This does not normally happen during mandrel tests.

The cupping and mandrel tests are all carried out on coatings applied to flexible substrates. If you are interested in the flexibility or other tensile properties of coatings on different substrates, you may wish to consider tensile testing.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standards. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

We need coated panels with dimensions 100 x 40 x no more than 0.3 mm . The substrate may be steel, tin-plate or soft aluminium. If we are to determine the largest mandrel that causes failure, we need 15 panels for each coating. If you specify the mandrel diameter, we need 3 panels.

 

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Flexibility Testing: BS EN ISO 6860, BS 3900-E11

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 6860 and BS 3900-E11 are alternative names for the same method which is used to assess the resistance of a dry film of paint, varnish or related product to cracking and/or detachment from a flexible substrate when bent around a conical mandrel.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standards. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

We need 3 coated panels for each coating. The dimensions should be 150 x 100 x no more than 0.8 mm . The substrate may be burnished steel, burnished tin-plate or soft aluminium.

 

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Hardness Testing: ASTM D 3363

Scope and Field Application

ASTM D 3363 is a method which is similar to BS 3900-E19 : ISO 15184.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

The test piece can be as small as 10 x 10 on any smooth rigid substrate.

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we need depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

 

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Hardness Testing: BS 3900-E17, ISO 12137- 1

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-E17 and ISO 12137-1 are alternative names for the same method which is used to assess the resistance of a dry film of paint, varnish or related product to marring by a looped or a ring-shaped stylus.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

Three panels 125 x 100 x not greater than 1 mm. The substrate and the coating thickness should be representative of the intended use of the coating.

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we need depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

 

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Hardness Testing: BS 3900-E19, ISO 15184

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-E19 and ISO 15184 are alternative names for the same method which is used to assess the hardness of organic coatings using a series of pencils with leads of known hardness.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

If the pencil holder is required then we require two test panels measuring 150 x 100 x any thickness and any material provided the substrate is flat and rigid. Coating must be smooth and more than 30 microns thick.

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we need depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

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Hardness Testing: BS EN ISO 1518, BS 3900-E2

Scope and Field Application

In some cases the test method will be specified but in others it is necessary to choose the most appropriate method. If you want a coating to be hard because it is going to be used on a floor subject to heavy traffic or on woodwork in a school room then you should consider if testing for resistance to abrasion or impact would be more appropriate.

 

Sample Requirements

Three test panels of dimensions 125 x 100 x not greater than 1 mm. Substrate must be metal. Coating must be non-conductive, smooth and more than 30 microns thick.

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we need depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

 

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Hardness Testing: BS EN ISO 1522, BS 3900-E5

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 1522 and BS 3900-E5 are alternative names for the same method which is used to assess the hardness of a dry film of paint, varnish or related product by measuring how it reduces the oscillation amplitude of a pendulum.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

Two panels of size 100 x 100 x 5 mm. The substrate should be metal or glass and must be flat and rigid. Coating must be smooth and more than 30 microns thick.

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we need depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

 

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Hardness Testing: BS EN ISO 2815, BS 3900-E9

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 2815 and BS 3900-E9 are alternative names for the same method which is used to assess the resistance of a dry film of paint, varnish or related product to indentation by a weighted metal wheel.

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

 

Sample Requirements

If you wish, we can prepare the test panels. The quantity of liquid paint we need depends on the method of application. We will be pleased to advise you regarding our requirements.

 

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Coatings News

Press Release Nov 17

9th November 2017

PRA granted UKAS accreditation

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Irfab releases first Global Industrial Coatings Market study module - Protective

23rd January 2017

PRA Irfab have released the first module of the new Global Industrial Coatings Market study, Protective.

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Woodcoatings Congress Proceedings

11th January 2017

Did you miss PRA’s 10th International Woodcoatings Congress? You can now buy a copy of the full proceedings and papers from the European Coatings Website!

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Christmas Shutdown

21st December 2016

We will be closed between Saturday 24th December 2016 and Monday 2nd January 2017.

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PRA Newsletter

7th December 2016

Click on the link to view PRA's new quarterly Newsletter

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PRA Press Release November 2016

30th November 2016

Notice of Management Buyout of PRA from Pera Technology Solutions

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Welcome to new Member Olin Epoxy!

21st October 2016

Welcome to our newest member - Olin Epoxy!

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Welcome to M&K Ghana

28th September 2016

PRA are pleased to welcome M&K Ghana to membership.

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Welcome to our new Member Synthomer

14th September 2016

Welcome back to PRA Synthomer!

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Welcome Dupre Minerals to PRA

28th July 2016

PRA is delighted to welcome another new member to the PRA - Dupre Minerals

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Autumn/Winter Training Courses Announced

22nd July 2016

PRA is delighted to preview its Autumn/Winter Training Courses for 2016.

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Coatings Events

Middle East Coatings Show

19th March 2018 - 21st March 2018
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Turkcoat & Paintistanbul 2018

22nd March 2018 - 24th March 2018
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American Coatings Show and Conference

9th April 2018 - 11th April 2018
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Surfex 2018

22nd May 2018 - 23rd May 2018
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CEPE Annual Conference + General Assembly 2018

26th September 2018 - 28th September 2018
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Woodcoatings Congress 2018

23rd October 2018 - 24th October 2018
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