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Testing paints before application

The tests referred to here relate to the properties of a coating before it is applied to a substrate.

Test Standard
Combustibility DeterminationBS 3900-A11
Controlled Stress Rheometry
DensityBS EN ISO 2811-1, BS 3900-A19
DensityBS EN ISO 2811-4, BS 3900-A22
Determination of Spreading RateBS 3900-A16, ISO 7254
Fineness of Grind DeterminationBS 3900-C6, ISO 1524, EN 21524
Flash Point DeterminationBS EN 456, ISO 3679
Freeze-thaw Resistance DeterminationASTM D 2243
In-Can Properties DeterminationBS 3900-A2, ISO 1513
Measurement of Contact Angle: Plate Method
Non-volatile DeterminationBS EN ISO 3251, BS 3900-B18, IS0 3251
Oil Absorption DeterminationBS EN ISO 787-5, BS 3483-B7
Particle Size Distribution
pH Determination
Surface Tension of Liquids
Viscosity Determination
Viscosity DeterminationASTM D2196
Viscosity DeterminationASTM D562
Viscosity DeterminationBS 3900:A7-1, ISO 2884-1
Viscosity DeterminationBS 3900:A7-2, BS EN ISO 2884-2, ISO 2884-2
Viscosity DeterminationBS EN ISO 2431, BS 3900:A6
Viscosity DeterminationDIN 53211, ASTM D1200, ASTM D4241

Combustibility Determination: BS 3900-A11

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-A11 is a go/no go procedure for use in the paint and allied industries to determine whether a product is combustible within the meaning of the UK Highly Flammable Liquids and Liquified Petroleum Gases Regulations 1972.

Combustibility is one of the properties which can be used to assess any potential fire hazard associated with manufacture, transport, storage and use. Another important and related property is flash point.

 

Sample Requirements

We require 200 ml of sample.

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Controlled Stress Rheometry:

Scope and Field Application

We can provide the following sample characteristics:-

 
•Flow including:

     ◦viscosity vs shear rate

     ◦viscosity vs shear stress

     ◦shear stress vs shear rate

     ◦temperature vs viscosity


•Creep

 
•Viscoelastic behaviour and time dependant effects.


 

Sample Requirements

Controlled Stress Rheometry: 100 ml.


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Density: BS EN ISO 2811-1, BS 3900-A19

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 2811-1 and BS 3900-A19 are alternative names for the same method which is intended for the determination of the density of paint, varnishes and related products using a pyknometer (otherwise known as a density bottle). This method can be used for most samples provided they do not contain entrapped air.

Sample Requirements

We require 500 ml of sample.

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Density: BS EN ISO 2811-4, BS 3900-A22

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 2811-4 and BS 3900-A22 are alternative names for the same method which is intended for the determination of the density of paint, varnishes and related products using a pressure cup. The method is intended for use with products, such as emulsion paints, which may contain small bubbles of entrapped air.

Sample Requirements

We require 500 ml of sample.

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Determination of Spreading Rate: BS 3900-A16, ISO 7254

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-A16 and ISO 7254 are alternative names for the same method which is designed to measure the natural spreading rate of application of a liquid paint or coating when applied to a surface using a brush. 

The standard defines "natural spreading rate" as the area covered by a given weight (or volume) of coating when applied uniformly by a skilled operator to give a film free of runs, sags and tears. The value (which is expressed as square metres per kilo or square metres per litre) is often quoted on the product label since it is a useful indication of how much coating needs to be purchased for a given project. 

Sample Requirements

We require 1 litre of coating.

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Fineness of Grind Determination: BS 3900-C6, ISO 1524, EN 21524

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-C6, ISO 1524 and EN 21524 are alternative names for the same method which is intended for the determination of the fineness of grind of pigments in liquid paints, inks and related products using a suitable gauge. It is a simple and convenient method of monitoring the progress of the dispersion stage of manufacture and for a QC check on the finished product.

Sample Requirements

We require 100 g of sample.

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Flash Point Determination: BS EN 456, ISO 3679

Scope and Field Application

BS EN 456 is a method which is used to determine the flash point of a paint, varnish, paint binder, solvent or related product when the flash point is below 110 °C.

ISO 3679 is technically identical to BS EN 456. The only difference is that the scope of ISO 3679 is extended to include flash point determinations of petroleum products.

The flash point of a material is defined as the lowest temperature that vapour from the material can be ignited by a flame or spark. It is one of the properties which can be used to assess any potential fire hazard associated with manufacture, transport, storage and use. Another important and related property is combustibility.

Sample Requirements

We require 200 ml of sample. The standards stipulate that samples should be supplied in glass or metal containers which are at least 90% full.

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Freeze-thaw Resistance Determination: ASTM D 2243

Scope and Field Application

This method is intended to evaluate the effect of freeze-thaw cycling on the viscosity and visual film properties of water-borne coatings. If you are only interested in the effect of freeze-thaw cycling on dry coatings then you may wish refer to the "Resistance to Temperature Change" test method in our Durability Testing section.


Sample Requirements

We require 2.5 litres of sample.


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In-Can Properties Determination: BS 3900-A2, ISO 1513

Scope and Field Application

BS 3900-A2 and ISO 1513 are alternative names for the same method which defines a procedure for the preliminary examination of paints, varnishes and related products. 

Used primarily when comparing decorative coatings which are sold to the general public since it deals with those properties that become apparent when the user removes the lid from the container and carries out any mixing required prior to use.  

Sample Requirements

The method involves examination of a packed product and therefore a representative container (no larger than 5 litres) is required for each sample.

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Measurement of Contact Angle: Plate Method:

Scope and Field Application

The Test is variant of the Wilhelmy Plate Method. The platinum plate is replaced by a uniform non-porous solid. The calculations are similar to those described for Surface Tension Measurements and provided the surface tension of the liquid is known the contact angle can be determined.

Sample Requirements

This method can only be carried out on non-porous homogeneous solids. This rules out wood and also coatings applied to any substrate. It is the technique to use if you need to measure accurately (for example) the surface energy of a sample of polymer. 

We need to be able to cut a test piece 20 x 30 x 5 mm.

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Non-volatile Determination: BS EN ISO 3251, BS 3900-B18, IS0 3251

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 3251, BS 3900-B18 and ISO 3251 are alternative names for the same method which is used to determine the mass of dry coating obtained from a given mass of liquid coating. It is used as a QC check and as a way of establishing if a coating has been excessively thinned prior to use.

 

The non-volatile content of a sample is not an absolute quantity but depends on the temperature and period of heating used for the test as well as the surface area to volume ratio of that portion of the sample under test.

 

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.

Sample Requirements

We require no more than 100 g of sample.


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Oil Absorption Determination: BS EN ISO 787-5, BS 3483-B7

Scope and Field Application

BS EN ISO 787-5 and BS 3483: B7 are alternative names for the same method which is intended for the determination of the oil absorption values of pigments and extenders.

 

Oil absorption is defined as the amount of oil required by a given weight of pigment to form a paste of specified consistency. It is affected by the particle size and surface chemistry of the pigment and consequently provides a convenient QC check for batch to batch variation in pigment properties. It is also an important value for those formulating coatings since it gives an indication of the amount of resin that will be absorbed by the pigment rather than be available for film formation.

 

There are no pass/fail criteria defined in the standard. This is a matter of agreement between the parties concerned.


Sample Requirements

We require 100 g of sample.


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Particle Size Distribution:

Scope and Field Application

We can determine the size of particles in the 5 to 1000 nanometre range (0.005 to 1 micron) using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). This technique is also known as quasi-electric light scattering (QELS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS).

 

One characteristic of particles in this size range is that they are in constant random thermal or Brownian motion. This motion causes the intensity of light scattered by the particles to vary with time. Large particles move more slowly than small particles and consequently the rate of fluctuation of light scattered by the large particles is also slower. Photon correlation spectroscopy measures the rate of change of the light fluctuations and uses this information to calculate the size distribution of the particles.

This work is not carried out to any international standard, we use our own in-house method.

 


 

Sample Requirements

Currently our experience is limited to measuring the size distribution of water borne latices of the type used to make emulsion paints. In fact the method is applicable to a stable dispersion of any homogenous material in water or organic solvents provided the particles are within the 5 to 1,000 nanometre size range.

The method is not suitable for samples that contain material outside this size range even if no information is required about the out-of-range particles. It is also unsuitable for dispersions within the size range if the particles are a mixture of different materials.

 

We require no more than 100 g of sample.

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pH Determination:

Scope and Field Application

We can determine the pH of water borne coatings and their components. In many cases the stability of paints is pH dependent and measurement of this parameter is an important quality control check.

 

This work is not carried out to any international standard, we use our own in-house method.

Sample Requirements

We require no more than 100g of sample.

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Surface Tension of Liquids:

Scope and Field Application

The techniques described on this page are the ones that are used to measure the properties of liquids (e.g. liquid coatings or raw materials). If you are more interested in the properties of solids, then please see "Surface Energy and Contact Angle Measurements on Solids" on the Mechanical properties page.

 

The end product of any successful painting or printing process is normally a dry film of the coating on a substrate. In cases where liquid paints or inks are applied, an essential intermediate stage in the process is the formation of a satisfactory wet film of the coating.

The success or otherwise of producing a satisfactory wet film depends on both the properties of the liquid coating and the properties of the substrate.


 

Sample Requirements

We need no more than 250 ml of liquid.


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Viscosity Determination:

Scope and Field Application

The viscosity of paints, inks and allied materials is an important property. It affects how easy it is to mix the components of the product during manufacture, how stable it is in storage, how easy it is to apply to a substrate and the manner in which it flows out to form a smooth layer free of defects like runs and brush marks.

 

Many coatings exhibit non-Newtonian behaviour i.e. the viscosity changes with the shear rate. Thixotropic paints are a common example of non-Newtonian products with the paint having a high viscosity in the can but becoming much more fluid when sheared during application by brush or roller.


Sample Requirements

Test Dependent (see below) 

 

 

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Viscosity Determination: ASTM D2196

Scope and Field Application

 

 

Sample Requirements

We require no more than 1 litre.


 

 

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Viscosity Determination: ASTM D562

Scope and Field Application

This method uses a Stormer viscometer which consist of a paddle-type rotor which is driven (via a cord and pulley arrangement) by a falling weight.

 

Sample Requirements

We require no more than 1 litre


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Viscosity Determination: BS 3900:A7-1, ISO 2884-1

Scope and Field Application

 

Sample Requirements

We require no more than 100 ml.

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Viscosity Determination: BS 3900:A7-2, BS EN ISO 2884-2, ISO 2884-2

Scope and Field Application

 

Sample Requirements

We require no more than 1 litre.

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Viscosity Determination: BS EN ISO 2431, BS 3900:A6

Scope and Field Application

 

 

Sample Requirements

We require no more than 250 ml.


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Viscosity Determination: DIN 53211, ASTM D1200, ASTM D4241

Scope and Field Application

 

 

Sample Requirements

We require no more than 250 ml.

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Coatings News

Press Release Nov 17

9th November 2017

PRA granted UKAS accreditation

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Irfab releases first Global Industrial Coatings Market study module - Protective

23rd January 2017

PRA Irfab have released the first module of the new Global Industrial Coatings Market study, Protective.

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Woodcoatings Congress Proceedings

11th January 2017

Did you miss PRA’s 10th International Woodcoatings Congress? You can now buy a copy of the full proceedings and papers from the European Coatings Website!

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Christmas Shutdown

21st December 2016

We will be closed between Saturday 24th December 2016 and Monday 2nd January 2017.

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PRA Newsletter

7th December 2016

Click on the link to view PRA's new quarterly Newsletter

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PRA Press Release November 2016

30th November 2016

Notice of Management Buyout of PRA from Pera Technology Solutions

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Welcome to new Member Olin Epoxy!

21st October 2016

Welcome to our newest member - Olin Epoxy!

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Welcome to M&K Ghana

28th September 2016

PRA are pleased to welcome M&K Ghana to membership.

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Welcome to our new Member Synthomer

14th September 2016

Welcome back to PRA Synthomer!

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Welcome Dupre Minerals to PRA

28th July 2016

PRA is delighted to welcome another new member to the PRA - Dupre Minerals

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Autumn/Winter Training Courses Announced

22nd July 2016

PRA is delighted to preview its Autumn/Winter Training Courses for 2016.

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Coatings Events

Middle East Coatings Show

19th March 2018 - 21st March 2018
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Turkcoat & Paintistanbul 2018

22nd March 2018 - 24th March 2018
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American Coatings Show and Conference

9th April 2018 - 11th April 2018
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Surfex 2018

22nd May 2018 - 23rd May 2018
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CEPE Annual Conference + General Assembly 2018

26th September 2018 - 28th September 2018
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Woodcoatings Congress 2018

23rd October 2018 - 24th October 2018
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